American bullfrog is large frog. It can reach 3.5 to 6 inches in length and up to 1.1 pounds in weight. Females are larger than males.
American bullfrog is usually green, olive-green, brown or grey in color. Its skin is bumpy and covered with dark blotches or spots that provide camouflage.
American bullfrog has strong body with large head and wide mouth. Hind legs are powerful and designed for jumping. It moves through the water easily thanks to its webbed feet.
American bullfrog has eyes of golden color, long and sticky tongue and circular eardrums on both sides of the head. These organs facilitate identification of the prey and ensure successful hunt.
Bullfrogs are named that way because males produce cow-like mooing.
Produced sound is very loud and it can be heard over half of a mile away. Males vocalize during the mating season.
American bullfrog has big appetite. Its diet depends on the age. Tadpoles are vegetarians that mostly consume algae and aquatic plants. Adults are carnivores (meat-eaters). They eat different types of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, small birds and mammals.
American bullfrog often eats members of its own species. This phenomenon is known as cannibalism.
American bullfrog is active mostly during the night (nocturnal creature). It waits silently for the prey to appear and catches it using the factor of surprise (an ambush predator).
American bullfrog does not have a lot of natural enemies because its skin produces toxin that has unpleasant taste. Main predators of American bullfrog are raccoons, snakes, turtles and birds of prey.
American bullfrog hibernates during the winter. It will remain hidden in the mud until the weather conditions improve.
Males are highly territorial and aggressive toward intruders.
Mating season takes place during the spring and summer. Females lay 20 000 eggs that float on the surface of water. High temperature of water is required for egg development.
Tadpoles will emerge from eggs after one week. They will transform into adult animals after couple of weeks or couple of years, depending on the water temperature.
American bullfrog can survive up to 10 years in the wild and up to 16 years in captivity.
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